Kilobarrels/day, 2012. Ring: net flow, hole: equal exchange, neglecting refining constraints. See also: Evolution of destinations of Middle East exports 2001-2011

West, Mideast little dependent

  • Middle East supplies 14% of US imports, 18% of net imports, 10% of consumption. Even this much is because Saudi Arabia exports to the US to strengthen the political relationship. US domestic production is rising, consumption falling, net imports 29% below 2005 peak.
  • Middle East supplies 21% of Europe imports, ex-Soviet half, Africa 18%.

    Asia, Mideast very interdependent

  • 73.5% of Middle East exports now go to Asia, only 11% to Americas, 13% to Europe, <3% to Africa. Asia produces little oil, has no closer major source, demand still rising fast.
  • Mideast import dependency is 79% in Japan, China 42%, India 62%, Other Asia-Pacific 63%. Net figures are even higher.

    Atlantic, Indo-Pacific nearly independent

  • Green outline: flows internal to each region make up most international trade. In the West much is via pipeline or local sea lanes, with main long ocean route from West Africa; in East almost all via long sea route through Hormuz and Malacca.
  • Blue outline: flows between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific (via Cape of Good Hope or Suez) are nearly equal: the 25% of Mideast exports going West balances African, South American, ex-Soviet sales to Asia.
  • Pink: New World+West Africa to/from Eurasia+North Africa.

    Ocean vs local sea and land transport

  • Khaki: Pipelines Russia to Europe, Canada to US Midwest, Russia and Kazakhstan to China.
  • Green: Local seas Mexico and Venezuela to US Gulf, North Africa to Southern Europe, Russian Far East to Japan and Korea, Singapore to Indonesia.
  • Blue: Far ocean Mideast to Asia ~15 Mbbl/day, Mideast to Europe and North America ~5M equal to Americas and Africa to Asia ~5M, Africa to West ~3M.

    Source notes

  • BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 provided 2012 statistics.
  • Rest of World imports include ex-Soviet, Middle East; for net view, paired with Middle East exports.
  • Eastern Russia physically in Asia but not separated by BP, so counted as North. Kazakhstan has pipeline to China.
  • West Africa (Gulf of Guinea) clustered with Americas because US imports more than Europe, US considers area a strategic priority. BP does not subdivide Africa imports, so paired with West Africa exports.
    World clusters into 2 or 3 nearly self-sufficient regions
    AreaLandsRoutesBasinShareVulnerability
    WestW Africa AmericasCaribbean, AtlanticAtlanticproduces, consumes 59% of worldDiverse routes; the only long ocean route, from West Africa, is unobstructed
    NorthN Africa Europe ex-SovietPipelines, N Sea, Med
    EastE Africa Asia-Pac MideastStraits of Hormuz, MalaccaIndo-Pacificproduces, consumes 41%Concentrated in one route with chokepoints